Introduction and Purpose

I have always loved apologetics. I enjoy discussing doctrine, scriptural versus and evidence that support or are seen as evidence against the Book of Mormon or LDS church. For that reason I have studied the most common complaints and evidence for and against the church.

In my teen years, when some teens would be doing regular teen activities and taking dates to the Mesa temple pageant, I would go to the Mesa temple pageant – not to watch the pageant, but to have a “discussion” with the evangelical Christians handing out their tracks. From the time I was 17 until I left on my mission, I believed I was preparing myself to not only win converts but to defend the LDS church. I was very surprised when I received my mission call to Sydney Australia to teach atheist and Buddhist Chinese immigrants in Mandarin Chinese. While in Australia, I considered myself lucky if a came across a Chinese immigrant that was vaguely familiar with the biblical Moses or Adam and Eve. Needless to say, all the time I spent researching critiques of the Book of Mormon and Bible was not utilized, but I still enjoyed my mission and found it immensely challenging and rewarding.

After my mission, I still studied apologetics, but by 2004 my enthusiasm for LDS apologetics started to wane. A lot of that was due to the type of evidence coming out in support of the Mesoamerican model. Non-LDS archaeologists and anthropologists could not support the claims being made by their LDS colleagues. I found this to be confusing, but many times with LDS apologetics when those Mesoamerican critiques could not be suitably answered, a wait and see attitude was taken. I think of that time period as the dark ages of Book of Mormon geography and DNA apologetics. Unfortunately, my opinion is that LDS researchers successfully proved that the Book of Mormon did not take place in Mesoamerica.

Around 2011 I watched a four hour long video by Rod Meldrum about the North American Book of Mormon Geography model. I found the video extremely exciting in that it all made sense why the golden plates were found in New York state and certain scriptural versus found in the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants. This video reignited my excitement about apologetics, and I began watching other videos by Wayne May about the Heartland Book of Mormon geography model.

At about this point, I started going on blogs that were critical of the LDS church and its claims. There was one blog in particular that was run by a geneticist. I started posting some of the Rod Meldrum and Wayne May evidence in the comment section of his blog. At one point a discussion about Micmac characters ensued regarding their origination. Were they a creation of Father Chretian Le Clercq, or did he use already existing Micmac characters? I found a translated copy of Father Clercq’s book and started reading to find the answer to this question. While reading his book, I read what appeared to be Christ’s visit to America, the Genesis account, the flood, and several Hebrew and Book of Mormon traditions and beliefs that appear to support the Book of Mormon and Bible. This was about two years ago; from there I continued to research more evidence written by early explorers and historians and expanded my research by geneticist and anthropologist regarding DNA and artifacts. Unlike the Mesoamerican model, all quotes and accounts in this document are from non-LDS archaeologists, anthropologists, geneticists, and historians. The research and accounts date from 2015 all the way back to the 16th century.

20 Reasons why the Book of Mormon is a Historical Match in North America

In the 6 sections of this essay, I provide evidence that the North American geography model answers all the normal critiques of the Book of Mormon”s historicity. The following 20 points outline the evidence I have gathered:

  1. The oldest known Hopewell Indian civilization began around 500BC at Crystal River Florida, a timeline that matches the Nephite arrival in North America
  2. The Hopewell disappearance of 400AD-500AD matches the Nephite genocide timeline from the Book of Mormon, the last epistle written in 421AD
  3. The Hopewell Indians had a south to north migration that matches the Nephite south to north migration, as described in the Book of Mormon
  4. The last Hopewell Indian sites are in close proximity to the Hill Cumorah, a geographical match for Moroni’s farewell
  5. Some North American Indian tribes had fair skins and appear European to early settlers and missionaries
  6. Some North American Indian tribes believed that they sailed to American from another country
  7. The Adena Indians closely match the Jaredite civilization in the Book of Mormon – such as the end of the Adena culture around 200BC
  8. Hopewell Indians had a Caucasian DNA marker called haplogroup X that is also found in Israel and Europe, but not East Asia (page 2)
  9. The Hopewell (and Adena/Jaredites) Indians had an advanced metallurgy that included the use of copper and meteoric iron tools, breast-plates, head-plates and jewelry as described in the Book of Mormon, including: (page 3)
    • Smelting
    • Iron Swords – early American settlers found oxidized American Indian iron swords in Indian mound ruins
    • Copper and brass plates with hieroglyphs, Hebrew, and unknown characters on them
    • Steel bows
  10. Fortifications: Hopewell sites had large earthen mounds with wooden picket post and towers – this fits Book of Mormon descriptions (page 3)
  11. Ancient battle grounds in the state of New York and other mass burial pits (page 3)
  12. Hopewell had fine twined linen and woven clothing (page 3)
  13. Hopewell had an extensive and advanced trade system with Highways that stretched to the Rocky ties to Joseph Smith revelation of Zelph (page 3)
  14. Animals and modes of travel are consistent: (page 3)
    • Elephants
    • Cattle
    • Horses & Chariots
    • Goats
    • Bees
    • Sheep
    • Cureloms and Cumoms
  15. Barley and wheat in Hopewell agriculture (page 3)
  16. Native American tribes had ancient metal tablets (page 3)
  17. Native American tribes tell of losing their scripture and the gospel (page 3)
  18. Native American customs and words that match up to Book of Mormon words and places (page 4)
  19. Many other ties between Book of Mormon and North America: (page 4)
    • Indian histories include Christ’s appearance in America
    • The New Madrid Fault
    • Keeshkumen
    • Bury the Hatchet
    • Story of Lamanite daughters
    • King Benjamin’s Tower
    • Medicine
    • Waters of Mormon
    • Hill Cumorah
    • Metal Plates
    • Coins
    • Kentucky (River of Blood)
    • River Sidon is most likely the Mississippi River
  20. Verses of scripture showing the geography supports the Heartland model (page 5)

Why North American Indians and -only- North American Indians are Direct Descendants of Lehi

  • Hopewell Indians match the timeframes and geography of the Book of Mormon
  • North American Indians have a Caucasian DNA marker
  • The Native Americans believed they removed and killed off a Caucasian race of Indian
  • North American Indians have histories of sailing from another country

Hopewell Indian

The oldest Hopewell site Crystal River Florida close proximity to the ocean is a likely match for Lehi’s landing in North America.

The Hopewell disappearance of 400AD-500AD matches the Nephite genocide timeline from the Book of Mormon the last epistle written in 421AD.

While the cause of the cultural shift away from Hopewell practices may be unclear, this change had occurred by around 400AD.
(Theler and Boszhardt 2003:121).

16 runestones found in North America are generally believed to be fake. These runestones have what appears to be Hebrew, Phoenician, and Greek-like characters. These are the Bat Creek Stone, AVM Runestone, Bourne stone, Grave Creek Stone, Heavener Runestone, Kensington Runestone, Narragansett Runestone, Oklahoma runestones, Poteau Runestone, Spirit Pond runestones, Vérendrye Runestone, Shawnee Runestone, Ohio Key stone, Ohio Decalogue stone, The Jonson Bradner stone, and the Michigan Relics. The generally accepted theory behind these runestones is that 19th and 20th century farmers and citizens had an insatiable desire to make fake Indian paleo Hebrew, Greek and Phoenician like artifacts and had the ability to do so. I find this problematic.

Hopewell Indian Interaction Sphere

The oldest Hopewell civilization started near the Gulf Coast and moved north to the Great Lakes area to Include New York. See the map below:

image001.jpg

Hill Cumorah

At the final battles at the Hill Cumorah, nearly a quarter of a million Nephites were slaughtered. An untold number of Lamanites were also killed. Indian legend supports this great and terrible battle that caused the death of hundreds of thousands of people.

Thayendanegea Mohawk/Iroquois Chief:

“From the earliest knowledge the white men have possessed of the country of western New York, the Painted Post has been noted as a geographical landmark. When first traversed by the white men, a large oaken post stood at the spot, which has retained the name to this day. It was painted in the Indian manner, and was guarded as a monument by the Indiana, who renewed it as often as it showed evidence of going to decay. Tradition says it was a monument of great antiquity, marking the spot of a great and bloody battle, according to some statements. According to others, it was erected to perpetuate the memory of some great war-chief.” (My opinion is the great Chief is Mormon I can’t prove it though)
(Painted Post, New York is located about 70 miles away from Hill Cumorah)
(Stone 1838 pg. 318)

In reference to Buffalo, New York in close proximity to what is the narrow neck of land and the Hill Cumorah:

“Tradition fixes upon this spot as the scene of the final and most bloody conflict between the Iroquois and the ”Gah-kwas” or Eries, — a tradition which has been supposed to derive some sanction from the number of fragments of decayed human bones which are scattered over the area.”
(Squier 1849)

Caucasian North American Indians

Since traditional Jews are known to be Caucasian or of lighter skin color. It’s not hard to fathom that the Tribe of Manasseh, the tribe Lehi descended from, also would have Caucasian or lighter skin color. Haplogroup X found in North American Indians is considered to be a Caucasian DNA marker. Other North, Central, and South American Indians show the haplogroups A, B, C, and D, which came from migrating Asian ethnic tribes of that period, with which Laman’s seed would have likely intermarried.

The Nephites became Lamanites and Lamanites became Nephites suggesting different shades in skin color as the Book of Mormon states.

“A recent survey of European mtDNA has demonstrated the presence of the same “other” haplotype motif in modern European populations, in which it is called “Haplogroup X.””
(MtDNA haplogroup X: An Ancient Link between Europe/Western Asia and North America?)

“To date, haplogroup X has not been unambiguously identified in Asia, raising the possibility that some Native American founders were of Caucasian ancestry.”
(MtDNA haplogroup X: An Ancient Link between Europe/Western Asia and North America?)

Nearly one-third of Native American genes come from west Eurasian peoples with ties to the Middle East and Europe.

(National Geographic “Great Surprise”—Native Americans Have West Eurasian Origins”)

On the basis of genetic analysis of some serum and red-cell protein polymorphisms, Szathmary and Reed (1972) and Szathmary et al. (1974) were able to reveal the presence of “Caucasian” alleles in the southeastern Ojibwa and to give an estimate of Caucasian admixture of ~30%; however, more recent data on other autosomal locus polymorphisms indicate that the genetic admixture may be as great as 50%.

(mtDNA and Y Chromosome-Specific Polymorphisms in Modern Ojibwa: Implications about the Origin of Their Gene Pool)

William Penn wrote the following to a friend in England. “I found them [the Indians of the eastern shore of North America] with like countenances with the Hebrew race; and their children of so lively a resemblance to them that a man would think himself in Duke’s place, or Barry Street, in London, when he sees them.”
(Murray 1908)

“The Cherokee are of a lighter color than the greater number of the North American Indians that are known to me.”
(Barton 1798 pg. XIV)

“They (Algonquin Indians) have the same complexion as the French.”
(Jouvency 1710)

About Gaspesian/Micmac Indians

“Although children are born among them with hair of different colours, as in Europe.”
(Clercq 1680 pg. 237)

“The hue or color of their bodies is generally not as white as ours though some quite fair skinned ones are to be found and most are born white.”
(In Mohawk Country: Early Narratives about a Native People, by Dean R. Snow, Charles T. Gehring, William A. Starna)

The Amlicites were Nephites who wanted to be ruled by a king instead of appointed judges. These Nephites rebelled and in their rebellion joined the Lamanites. There was one problem though. I believe that their skin color was of a lighter Caucasian skin color. The seed of Laman on their arrival in the new world most likely intermarried with the indigenous Asian ethnic tribes of their day. So the Amlicites would have most likely looked like Nephites instead of Lamanites. So in order for the Amlicites to distinguish themselves from the Nephites they marked their foreheads with red paint. The Cherokee Indians are excellent candidates to be the Amlicites. From historical accounts to the current day many Cherokee who claim to be full blooded Cherokee have European features and skin color. Its looks as though red paint continued to be a part of Lamanite culture.

Alma 3:4 – And the Amlicites were distinguished from the Nephites, for they had marked themselves with red in their foreheads after the manner of the Lamanites.

The haplogroup X Caucasian DNA marker might be demonstrated in several George Caitlyn Native American portraits. This is assuming that the Native American chiefs and individuals have no European admixture of the 18th and 19th century, since the portraits were painted in the 19th century.

George Caitlin painted several Native American portraits, including the eight portraits shown below.

“The Cherokee are of a lighter color than the greater number of the North American Indians that are known to me.”
(Barton 1798 pg. XIV)

Wolf Pawnee Tribe, his name
translates to Brave Chief
Cherokee Indian, Cól-lee, Band Chief
image002.jpg image008.jpg

“They (Algonquin Indians) have the same complexion as the French.”
(JOSEPH, JOUVENCY 1710)

“(Micmac Indian children) are born among them with hair of different colours, as in Europe.”
(Clercq 1680, pg. 237)

Sauk Fox Tribe, Pam-a ho Lay-láw-she-kaw, Goes up
the River, an Aged Chief
image004.jpg image010.jpg
Missouria Tribe, Haw-che-ke-sug-ga Shawnee, Lay-loo-ah-pee-ai-shee-kaw
image006.jpg image007.jpg
Nakota Sioux, Tah-zee-keh-da-cha Chief Bread of the Oneida Tribe
image008.jpg image009.jpg

It’s interesting that many of the portraits with European features also wear a turban like head dress.

A White Race and its Extermination

Concerning Hattera Indians of North Carolina:

“These Hattera tell us, that several of their Ancestors were white People, and could talk in a Book, as we do; the Truth of which is confirmed by gray eyes being found frequently amongst these Indians, and no others.”
(John Lawson 1709 pg. 62)

The Nephites who I believe had Caucasian DNA were killed off by the Lamanites. The North American Indians have a legend of a foreign white race being completely killed or removed from certain areas.

Captain Brant Thayendanegea was a well-known Iroquois and Mohawk leader and Chief who sided with the British during the Revolutionary war. He was born of Iroquois parents who converted to Christianity. They gave him a Christian name Joseph Brant. The quote is from his biography:

“I was curious to learn in the course of my conversations with Captain Brant (Thayendanegea Mohawk/Iroquois Chief), what information he could give me respecting the tumuli (mounds) which are found on and near the margin of the rivers and lakes, from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi. He stated, in reply, that the subject had long been agitated, but yet remained in some obscurity. A tradition, he said, prevailed among the different nations of Indians through-out that whole extensive range of country, and had been handed down time immemorial, that in an age long gone by, there came white men from a foreign country, and by consent of the Indians established trading-houses and settlements where these tumuli (mounds) are found. A friendly intercourse was continued for several years; many of the white men brought their wives, and had children born to them; and additions to their numbers were made yearly from their own country. These circumstances at length gave rise to jealousies among the Indians, and fears began to be entertained in regard to the increasing numbers, wealth, and ulterior views of the new comers; apprehending that becoming strong, they might one day seize upon the country as their own. A secret council, composed of the chiefs of all the different nations from the St. Lawrence to the Mississippi, was therefore convoked; the result of which, after long deliberation, was a resolution that on a certain night designated for that purpose, all their white neighbors, men, women and children, should be exterminated.“
(Stone 1838 pg. 484)

“Here the Indians tell us there was a war in early times, against an Indian town, traces of which are yet visible, corn pits, etc. This was inhabited by a distinct nation, neither Iroquois nor Delawares, who spoke a peculiar language, and were called Tehotitachse, against them the Five Nations warred and routed them out; the Cayugas for a time held a number captive, but the nation and the language are now exterminated and extinct.”
(Murray 1908 pg. 46)

Natchez Indians of Mississippi, in reference to an ancient race of Indian who preceded them and eventually were defeated:

“I did not fail to ask him who these warriors of fire were. “They were,” said he, “bearded men, white but swarthy… They had come on floating villages from the side where the sun rises. They conquered the ancients of the country, of whom they killed as many as there are spears of grass in the Prairies, and in the beginning they were good friends of our brothers, but ultimately they made them submit as well as the ancients of the country, as our Suns (leaders) had foreseen and had foretold to them.””
(Swanton 1909 pg. 184)

“There is a dim but persistent tradition of a strange white race preceding the Cherokee, some of the stories even going so far as to locate their former settlements and to identify them as the authors of the ancient works found in the country. The earliest reference appears to be that of Barton in 1797, on the statement of a gentleman whom he quotes as a valuable authority upon the southern tribes. “The Cherokee tell us, that when they first arrived in the country which they inhabit, they found it possessed by certain ‘moon-eyed people,’ who could not see in the day-time. These wretches they expelled.” He seems to consider them an albino race.* Haywood, twenty-six years later, says that the invading Cherokee found “white people” near the head of the Little Tennessee, with forts extending thence down the Tennessee as far as Chickamauga creek. He gives the location of three of these forts. The Cherokee made war against them and drove them to the mouth of Big Chickamauga creek, where they entered into a treaty and agreed to remove if permitted to depart in peace. Permission being granted, they abandoned the country. Elsewhere he speaks of this extirpated white race as having extended into Kentucky and probably also into western Tennessee, according to the concurrent traditions of different tribes.”
(Mooney 1902 pg. 22)

“Did not these skeletons belong to persons of the same race with those white people, who were extirpated in part, and in part driven from Kentucky, and probably also from West Tennessee, as Indian tradition reports?”
(Haywood 1823 pg. 166)

“An old Indian, in conversation with Colonel James F. Moore, of Kentucky, informed him that the western country, and particularly Kentucky, had once been inhabited by white people, but that they were exterminated by the Indians. That the last battle was fought at the falls of Ohio, and that the Indians succeeded in driving the Aborigines into a small island below the rapids, where the whole of them were cut to pieces.”
(M.H. Frost 1819; On the aborigines of the Western Countries)

“Mr. Thomas Bodley was informed by Indians of different tribes northwest of the Ohio, that they had understood from their old men, and that it had been a tradition among their several nations, that Kentucky had been settled by whites, and that they had been exterminated by war. They were of opinion that the old fortifications, now to be seen in Kentucky and Ohio, were the productions of those white inhabitants. Wappockanitta, a Shawnee chief, near a hundred and twenty years old, living on the Auglaze River, confirmed the above tradition.”
(M.H. Frost 1819; On the aborigines of the Western Countries)

Sailed Here from another Country

In the Book of Mormon it states that Lehi and his family sailed from the Middle East to another country. Some North American Indian tribes have a belief that they arrived to the North American continent through sailing from another country.

Gaspesian/Micmac belief of how they arrived on the North American continent

The Gaspesian/Micmac have two theories of how they arrived. The first is by sailing from another country, and the other belief fits the Genesis account and flood.

“Others hold that this new world has been peopled by certain individuals who, having embarked upon the sea for the purpose of establishing a colony in foreign parts, were surprised by storm and tempest, which threw them upon the coasts of North America. Here they were unfortunately shipwrecked, and, with their ships, they lost everything which they must have had with them of property, and of the things which they valued most in the world. Affairs were such that this shipwreck having left them wholly without hope of ever returning into their own country.”
(Clercq 1680, pg. 85)

Iroquois legend of a foreign people who sailed to the continent then were destroyed

Cusick’s book I believe is about the Nephite and Lamanite Interactions and fighting except from the Lamanite perspective told in Iroquois Legend.

“After a long time a number of foreign people sailed from a port unknown; but unfortunately before reached their destination the winds drove them contrary ; at length their ship wrecked somewhere on the southern part of the Great Island, and many of the crews perished ; a few active persons were saved ….They immediately selected a place for residence and built a small fortification in order to provide against the attacks of furious beasts….After many years the foreign people became numerous, and extended their settlements ; but afterwards they were destroyed”
(Cusick 1838, pg. 16)

Natchez Indians of Mississippi concerning a race of Indian that preceded them

“They had come on floating villages from the side where the sun rises.”
(Swanton 1909, pg. 184)

“There is a rock, called the Dighton rock, on Taunton River, near Dighton, in Massachusetts. It is a large rock in the margin of the sea, and upon it are inscriptions in strange characters, partly alphabetical and partly hieroglyphic… In another scene, there is a vessel, with its masts, flags, and long rudder, as in the oriental vessels at this day…The subject generally seems intended to commemorate the arrival of a people there from the ocean and the east, and who, having had intercourse with that natives)
(Haywood 1823, pg. 329)

The Jaredites

  • The Adena (Jaredite) culture ending at 200BC is a Book of Mormon match.
  • Bones discovered in Hopewell and Adena Indian sites were of larger than normal size. Some of the skeletons were estimated to be 7 feet in height. The Brother of Jared was considered a mighty man large in stature.
  • The Adena civilization also had breastplates and cloth as described in the Book of Mormon.

Adena Culture

The Adena culture is the civilization that is most likely candidate to be the Jaredites as explained in the Book of Mormon. The end of the Adena culture is a match for the Book of Mormon of 200BC. The Jaredites are stated have breastplates it’s shown that the Adena had a form of metallurgy. The Jaredite written language was most likely cuneiform. Cuneiform is known to be written on metal and clay tablets. The Adena are known to have stone tablets with stylized geometric designs on their tablets. Correlations between Adena and Hopewell in some ways also help support the Adena as the Jaredite people.

It’s believed that the Adena civilization began around 1000 BC. The Jaredites would have arrived on the American continent around 2000 BC to the time of the Tower of Babel. Some theologians have suggested the tower babel could be the Mesopotamia Ziggurat of Babylon or the city of Ur.

The Mesopotamian culture was distinct in several ways. In one particular manner is the shape Mesopotamian built boats, it is distinct from the majority of other cultures. The Mesopotamians built boats that were round called coracles. The Book of Mormon states that the Brother of Jared built boats that are tight like unto a dish. The circular design of the Brother of Jared’s boats in today’s standards is an odd and peculiar design. But during his time in what could be Mesopotamia the circular design of the boat would fit right in. Iraq people in what is ancient Mesopotamia continued to make round coracles up until the 1990s when the coracles were replaced with modern boats.

neobabylonianziggurat
Neo Babylonian Ziggurat

Because the Adena culture began around 1000BC and the tower of Babel dated to 2000BC. I’m going to assume the original settlements of the Brother of Jared have not been found. According to scripture the brother of Jared landed the eight circular boats in what would now be Lake Ontario. The boats as described in the scriptures were light upon the water. In this way the boats must have been blown up the St Lawrence Seaway to Lake Ontario.

The end of the Adena culture is believed to have happened around 200BC. It’s assumed that the Adena eventually became part of the Hopewell people the Adena superimposing the Hopewell culture as their own. There are aspects of this that line up with the Book of Mormon.

From the time of Babel the Brother of Jared’s posterity continues until Coriantumr leads his people in war to the point that he is the only person alive from the Jaredites. After the slaughter of all his people Coriantumr lives with the Mulekites for the space of nine moons. As explained in the Book of Omni the period of Coriantumr living with the Mulekites and the destruction of the Jaredites is between 323BC-130BC. This time period falls in line with the Adena culture end or being absorbed into the Hopewell culture. We know that the Mulekites who Coriantumr stayed with became Nephites. It states that the Mulekites learned the Nephite language and that Mosiah became their king. Since archaeologist are not showing a third civilization along with the Adena and Hopewell. I’m going to speculate that the Mulekites are being mistaken as Hopewell possibly Adena.

There are archaeological aspects and historical records given in the Book of Mormon that do line up certainly not perfectly but in pieces. Archaeological records show that the Adena people and the Hopewell combined together at 200BC. Since archaeologists have not suggested that the Adena people disappeared it obviously an aspect that does not fit the historical record of the Book of Mormon. But I don’t think it’s completely outlandish to suggest that the Mulekites and Nephites took over Adena sites as their own after the genocide of the Jaredites. But some sites stayed distinctly Adena and do not show the Hopewell admixture after 200BC suggesting in my unprofessional opinion those sites were abandoned by the Adena because they were all killed by war with their own people. Anthropologist can speculate as to why but only a study of the Book of Mormon in my unprofessional will reveal mysteries of the Adena and Hopewell cultures.

Below is a map of Adena and Hopewell sites. One can see the admixture of Adena with Hopewell around 200BC and Adena sites that were abandoned. Fort Ancient sites date to 1000AD are believed to have descended from the Hopewell (Lamanites). One can be very well looking at cities mentioned in the Book of Mormon.

image011.jpg

A controversial aspect of the argument is that I believe that the Adena culture are the posterity of the giants listed in the Bible. The bible states that a race of giants lived in certain areas of the Old World. Goliath based on Josephus, and the 4th century Septuagint manuscripts was 6 feet 9 inches tall. The Book of Mormon supports the idea that the Jaredites were of large size. The Book of Mormon states the Brother of Jared was considered a large and mighty man (Ether 1:34). Also when the Nephites found Jaredite breast plates they considered them of large size (Mosiah 8:10). There is archaeological evidence of 20th century researchers and early settlers finding skeletons that were of large size some being seven feet tall.

“The workmen who were engaged in digging ditches for underdraining had a few days before come upon large quantities of pottery and skeletons of large size, but had carelessly broken them instead of preserving them. “
(Peet 1892 pg. 163)

“These will prove demonstratively, that the ancient inhabitants of this country, either the primitive or secondary settlers, were of gigantic stature, compared with the present races of Indians.”
(Haywood)

“He took a jaw bone and applied it to his own face, and when his chin touched the concave of the chin bone, the hinder ends of the jaw bone did not touch the skin of his face on either side.”
(Haywood)

“The remains of burial 40 is one of the largest known to Adena; the skull-foot field measurement is 84 inches (7 feet).”
(The Dover Mound, William S Webb and Charles Snow, 1959)

“This individual was of large proportions. When measured in the tomb his length was approximately 7.04 feet. All the long bones were heavy and possessed marked eminences for the attachment of muscles.”
(Mounds for the Dead, by Don Dragoo, 1963).

“Two outstanding traits have been noted repeatedly for this group. One is the protruding and massive chin often with prominent bilateral protrusions. The second trait is the large size of many of the males and some of the females. A male of six feet was common and some individuals approaching seven feet in height have been found, for example, Burial 40 in the Dover Mound and Burial 54 in the Cresap Mound. Some of the females in the Dover Mound also were more than six feet in height. Not only were these Adena people tall but also the massiveness of the bones indicates powerfully built individuals. The head was generally big with a large cranial capacity.”
(Mounds for the Dead, by Don Dragoo, 1963).

Nephi and the Brother of Jared who’s posterity would be the Nephites and Jaredites are both depicted as large men (1 Nephi 4:31, Ether 1:34). Mormon also considered to be large in stature.
(Mormon 2:1)

David Cusick book entitled Ancient History of The Six Nations is about the legends of the Iroquois. I believe their legends has a hodgepodge of the Jaredites and Nephite histories mixed together. The traditional lands of the Iroquois includes New York and they have legends of exterminating a white race of Indian. The six nations are composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, Onondaga, and Tuscarora nations. Some of these tribes might have been Nephites. But in these legends are signs that their ancestors knew of the Jaredites.

In the History of the Six Nations one of their legend a powerful tribe of “stonish giants” enter the country. The Iroquois battle the giants but the giants are too powerful. The Iroquois God sees the distress of his people and devices a plan to get rid of these giants. A band of giants are tricked into to entering a ravine and a mass of rocks fall onto the giants killing all but one. This one survivor tell the other giants and the giants seek asylum in the North Country. There are bits and pieces to this legend that match the historical record of the Book of Mormon. One is that these giants have forts of protection. The giants had stony exterior which I would attribute breast plates and head plates that the Jaredites had. The giants had clubs which I’m going to interpret as swords. I believe the use of swords got lost with time. Another important aspect is that the Iroquois in this Legend never kill off these stonish giants but the reason why the leave Iroquois country is due to their God. Their God kills off a band of giants there is one lone survivor who tells the rest of the giants what happened. The rest of the giants depart the Iroquois country via Niagara Falls or the narrow passage and seek asylum into the Land Desolation. The Land Desolation as described in the Book of Mormon is where all the Jaredites or giants are eventually killed leaving nothing but bones and their forts of protection. The geographical locations where this legend takes place is perfect in this way. The land Desolation being entered by the narrow passage. The place that these giants seek asylum is also the place the Jaredite people are extinguished by war against each other, and in the end there is one lone survivor, Coriantumr.

The depictions of the stonish giants is pictured below from Cusick’s book:
stonish

In the next section, I present the convincing DNA connection between the Hopewell Indians and the Middle East.

Series Navigation: North American Book of Mormon Geography - David McKaneTribe of Manasseh – Native American DNA >>

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