DNA

  • Hap­logroup X a Mid­dle East and Euro­pean DNA mark­er found in North Amer­i­ca
  • Hap­logroup X in DNA dis­tri­b­u­tion match­es Hopewell and Book of Mor­mon migra­tion, expanse and trade sys­tem
  • Leg­end of Fu Sang Chi­nese knowl­edge of the North Amer­i­can con­ti­nent

Hap­logroups A, B, C, D, and X are found among the Indi­ans of the Amer­i­can con­ti­nents. Hap­logroups A, B, C, and D can be explained as com­ing from Asia, but not hap­logroup X, which is only found in North Amer­i­can Indi­ans. Oth­er North, Cen­tral, and South Amer­i­can Indi­ans show the Hap­logroups A, B, C, and D. Hap­logroup X is not found in Asia, it is found in Israel, Europe and North Amer­i­ca specif­i­cal­ly the Great lakes region by New York State.
http://​www​.eupe​dia​.com/​e​u​r​o​p​e​/​H​a​p​l​o​g​r​o​u​p​_​X​_​m​t​D​N​A​.​s​h​tml
https://​en​.wikipedia​.org/​w​i​k​i​/​H​a​p​l​o​g​r​o​u​p​_​X​_​(​m​t​DNA)

Sci­en­tists believe that hap­logroup X crossed the Bering Ice Bridge some­time around 12000 and 30000 years ago. That belief is prob­lem­at­ic because there is no DNA evi­dence trail that hap­logroup X crossed the Bering land bridge. Apply­ing the same rea­son­ing that crit­ics use to con­clude that DNA dis­proves the Book of Mor­mon in Mesoamer­i­ca, you would also con­clude that hap­logroup X did not cross the Bering land bridge. There is no Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X DNA found in Siberia, East Asia, or the west coast of Amer­i­ca, and it is com­plete­ly absent in Cen­tral and South Amer­i­ca. When look­ing at the hap­logroup X DNA dis­tri­b­u­tion map notice that it is not found in East Asia but in Europe and the Mid­dle East. There is a small group of hap­logroup X found in the Alta­ians of south Siberia but this sub­group of hap­logroup X is not relat­ed to North Amer­i­can Indi­ans and their arrival in the Alta­ians is after the Bering Ice Bridge would not have been cross­able.

Third, the few Alta­ian (Derenko et al. 2001) and Siber­ian hap­logroup X lin­eages are not relat­ed to the Native Amer­i­can clus­ter, and they are more like­ly explained by recent gene flow from Europe or from West Asia”
Ori­gin and Dif­fu­sion of mtD­NA Hap­logroup X
Haplogroup_X_(mtDNA)

What also makes hap­logroup X inter­est­ing is that it is a Euro­pean. Cau­casian DNA mark­er. The Cau­casian part is impor­tant to keep that in mind as you read the quotes about Native Amer­i­can tra­di­tions and sto­ries.

Hap­logroup X is remark­able in that it has not been found in Asians, includ­ing Siberi­ans”

In that case, as it has been pro­posed, hap­logroup X was brought to Amer­i­ca by the east­ward migra­tion of an ances­tral white pop­u­la­tion, of which no trace has so far been found in the mtD­NA gene pool of mod­ern Siberian/eastern Asian pop­u­la­tion” (The Pres­ence of Mito­chon­dr­i­al Hap­logroup X in Alta­ians from South Siberia Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:237–241, 2001)

To date, hap­logroup X has not been unam­bigu­ous­ly iden­ti­fied in Asia, rais­ing the pos­si­bil­i­ty that some Native Amer­i­can founders were of Cau­casian ances­try.”

http://​www​.sci​encedi​rect​.com/​s​c​i​e​n​c​e​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​/​p​i​i​/​S​0​0​0​2​9​2​9​7​0​7​6​1​6​292

Over­all, the sequence data and phy­lo­ge­net­ic analy­sis sug­gest that the Native Amer­i­can and the Euro­pean hap­logroup X mtD­NAs share a com­mon mater­nal ances­tor”

The 14 Cau­casian-Euro­pean hap­logroup X sam­ples (des­ig­nat­ed “CE1”–“CE14”) includ­ed 2 Cau­casians of Euro­pean ances­try” (MtD­NA hap­logroup X: An Ancient Link between Europe/Western Asia and North Amer­i­ca Michael D. Brown,1 Seyed H. Hosseini,1 Anto­nio Torroni,2 Hans-Ju¨rgenBandelt,3 Jon C. Allen,1 Theodore G. Schurr,1 Rosaria Scozzari,2 Ful­vio Cruciani,2 and Dou­glas C. Wallace1)

Phy­lo­ge­net­ic analy­sis and coa­les­cence esti­mates for Amer­i­can Indi­an and Euro­pean hap­logroup X mtD­NAs exclude the pos­si­bil­i­ty that the occur­rence of hap­logroup X in Amer­i­can Indi­ans is due to recent Euro­pean admix­ture.” (The Pres­ence of Mito­chon­dr­i­al hap­logroup X in Alta­ians from South Siberia Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69:237–241, 2001)

Near­ly one-third of Native Amer­i­can genes come from west Eurasian peo­ples with ties to the Mid­dle East and Europe (“Great Surprise”—Native Amer­i­cans Have West Eurasian Ori­gins http://​news​.nation​al​geo​graph​ic​.com/​n​e​w​s​/​2​0​1​3​/​1​1​/​1​3​1​1​2​0​-​s​c​i​e​n​c​e​-​n​a​t​i​v​e​-​a​m​e​r​i​c​a​n​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​m​i​g​r​a​t​i​o​n​-​s​i​b​e​r​i​a​-​g​e​n​e​t​i​cs/)

Anoth­er prob­lem with the Bering Ice bridge the­o­ry is that Poly­ne­sian DNA is found in South Amer­i­ca. The idea that Poly­ne­sians migrat­ed across the Bering Ice Bridge is ridicu­lous.

Researchers mapped sim­i­lar­i­ties in genes, muta­tions and ran­dom pieces of DNA of Cen­tral and South Amer­i­can tribes with oth­er groups. Warmer col­ors indi­cate the strongest affini­ties.”
(Pon­tus Skoglund, Har­vard Med­ical School).

From the map below notice the lack of Asian pock­ets of DNA that cor­re­spond to South Amer­i­ca in Siberia and East Asia. But the larg­er con­cen­tra­tions found in the trop­i­cal and warmer cli­mates of South Asia. Why would any group of peo­ple migrate to the arc­tic sub­ze­ro tem­per­a­tures of Siberia and North East Asia from trop­i­cal and tem­per­ate cli­mates? Com­par­a­tive­ly very few peo­ple live in these arc­tic cli­mates the rea­son why these loca­tions are inhos­pitable to human life. There are large con­cen­tra­tions of the men­tioned DNA found in South Amer­i­can but notice the par­tic­u­lar DNA sam­ples being shown as evi­dence is not found in what is now Amer­i­ca and only one loca­tion in Cana­da. This evi­dence would sug­gest transocean­ic voy­ages to South Amer­i­ca. Below are quotes from arti­cles and research papers ques­tion­ing the Bering Ice bridge the­o­ry:

Native American Ancestry Map

The pre­vail­ing the­o­ry is that the first Amer­i­cans arrived in a sin­gle wave, and all Native Amer­i­can pop­u­la­tions today descend from this one group of adven­tur­ous founders. But now there’s a kink in that the­o­ry.”

If Aleut­ian Islanders or their ances­tors had some­how mixed with an Aus­tralasian group up north or made their way south to the Ama­zon, they’d leave genet­ic clues along the way. “It’s not a clear alter­na­tive,” argues Reich.”

Three Ama­zon­ian groups—Suruí, Kari­tiana and Xavante—all had more in com­mon with Aus­tralasians than any group in Siberia.”

Both stud­ies there­fore sug­gest that the ances­try of the first Amer­i­cans is a lot more com­pli­cat­ed than sci­en­tists had envi­sioned.”

There is a greater diver­si­ty of Native Amer­i­can found­ing pop­u­la­tions than pre­vi­ous­ly thought,” says Skoglund. “And these found­ing pop­u­la­tions con­nect indige­nous groups in far apart places of the world.”

http://​www​.smith​so​ni​an​mag​.com/​s​c​i​e​n​c​e​-​n​a​t​u​r​e​/​D​N​A​-​s​e​a​r​c​h​-​f​i​r​s​t​-​a​m​e​r​i​c​a​n​s​-​l​i​n​k​s​-​a​m​a​z​o​n​-​i​n​d​i​g​e​n​o​u​s​-​a​u​s​t​r​a​l​i​a​n​s​-​1​8​0​9​5​5​9​7​6​/​?​n​o​-​ist

Anoth­er valu­able point in show­ing incon­sis­ten­cies of the Bering land bridge the­o­ry is the Clovis/fluted spear point from Europe. This type of stone pro­jec­tile is believed to have been brought from the Euro­pean con­ti­nent to North Amer­i­ca via Bear­ing Ice Bridge. This spear point is found in Europe and North Amer­i­ca but not found in Siberia or East Asia. How was this spear point brought to North Amer­i­ca across the Bear­ing land bridge if it’s not found in Siberia and East Asia? Clo­vis spear points are found in plen­ti­ful sup­ply east of the Rocky Moun­tains but in such areas as Alas­ka and the Aleu­tians where there should also be evi­dence show­ing this sup­posed cross­ing there are a few spots in Alas­ka most like­ly brought from move­ment from the east coast. But noth­ing in the way of evi­dence show­ing a land migra­tion in Alas­ka or the Aleu­tians or East Asia or Siberia.

image015.jpg image016.jpg

I believe it can be shown that hap­logroup X and or the Jared­ites are inex­orably linked to this type of stone pro­jec­tile. The Clo­vis peo­ple are believed to have caused the extinc­tion of at least 25 gen­era of indige­nous land mam­mals found in North Amer­i­ca. To include hors­es, cat­tle, goats, and mam­moths (ele­phants) all ani­mals list­ed in the Book of Mor­mon. If the Jared­ites brought over the Clo­vis spear point which I believe they did the Nephites and Laman­ites even­tu­al­ly adopt­ed this type of spear point. Major stum­bling blocks to the his­toric­i­ty of the Book of Mor­mon can be shown to be false. I can only assume based on the evi­dence the cur­rent dat­ing of the Clo­vis peo­ple is wrong and the Clo­vis point was used and arrived with the Jared­ites. The cur­rent the­o­ry that this point arrived via the Bering land bridge with­out evi­dence proves this the­o­ry is in need of reex­am­i­na­tion. That can be said of world migra­tions to the Amer­i­can con­ti­nent also. The Clo­vis spear point map in my opin­ion is also indica­tive of the bat­tles between Nephites and Laman­ites fought in North Amer­i­ca.

Orig­i­nal­ly the Bering Ice Bridge states that there was a sin­gle migra­tion as far back as 30000 years ago. But pop­u­la­tion expan­sion of North Amer­i­ca and diverse cul­ture and lin­guis­tics pop­u­la­tions found in North and South Amer­i­ca prove against this. Now the­o­rist are explor­ing the idea of two and maybe more migra­tions. I believe this is just the begin­ning of more the­o­ries to come. If atten­tion can be turned to holes found in the Bering Ice Bridge the­o­ry I believe the­o­ries that include trans-ocean­ic voy­ages from Asia to the Amer­i­can con­ti­nent will be unavoid­able.

Sci­en­tists have used Anz­ick-1 to show a genet­ic link between Siberia and North Amer­i­ca, but there are a cou­ple prob­lems with this hypoth­e­sis. Anzwic-1 is hap­logroup D not X. It does not explain how hap­logroup X arrived in North Amer­i­ca. Based on genet­ic dis­tri­b­u­tion hap­logroup X and D, hap­logroup X is more close­ly asso­ci­at­ed to the large con­cen­tra­tion of Clo­vis and flut­ed points found on the east coast of Amer­i­ca of which hap­logroup D is almost com­plete­ly absent from. Also, what would appear to be the found­ing pop­u­la­tions based on the high con­cen­tra­tions of hap­logroup D is found in cen­tral and South Amer­i­ca – it’s not found on the west coast of North Amer­i­ca or in Alas­ka. The phys­i­cal evi­dence leads me to believe that hap­logroup D arrived by trans-ocean­ic voy­ages to Cen­tral and South Amer­i­ca.

When Colum­bus reached the Amer­i­c­as in 1492, Native Amer­i­can occu­pa­tion stretched from the Bering Strait to Tier­ra del Fuego, Tor­roni explained. Those native pop­u­la­tions encom­passed extra­or­di­nary lin­guis­tic and cul­tur­al diver­si­ty, which has fueled exten­sive debate among experts over their inter­re­la­tion­ships and ori­gins. “ (First Amer­i­cans arrived as 2 sep­a­rate migra­tions, accord­ing to new genet­ic evi­dence)

The DNA and Clo­vis spear points not found in Siberia and East Asia brings the bear­ing Ice bridge the­o­ry to a halt. But there is also a large amount of evi­dence dis­prov­ing the time­line of a 15000BC to 30000BC time­line. The evi­dence will show there are cer­tain North Amer­i­can Indi­an tribes that have Hebrew beliefs, lin­guis­tics, arti­facts, tech­nol­o­gy and cul­ture that date to bib­li­cal times and not to 15000BC which would pre­date these tech­nolo­gies and beliefs. A great exam­ple are the Hopewell and Ade­na Indi­ans these cul­tures had an advanced met­al­lur­gy to include cop­per breast­plates, cop­per and sil­ver Jew­el­ry, mete­oric iron tools and weapons. The Hopewell and Ade­na had woven cloth and but­tons. The Hopewell had an advanced trade sys­tem that stretched for thou­sands of miles with a high­way sys­tem. It’s also worth not­ing that civ­i­liza­tions that had met­al­lur­gy, woven cloth and advanced trade sys­tem also had a writ­ten lan­guage. The old­est Hopewell arche­o­log­i­cal site is found in Flori­da at 500BC these Indi­ans dis­ap­peared around 400 AD in the Great Lakes region. These tech­nolo­gies, cul­tur­al and lin­guis­tic ties show that hap­logroup X arrived dur­ing bib­li­cal times by ship and not 12000BC to 30000BC through an arc­tic land migra­tion.

The Hopewell Indi­ans have hap­logroup X DNA. The Ade­na cul­ture end also match­es the Book of Mor­mon. The Hopewell time­line geog­ra­phy and tech­nol­o­gy match­es the Book of Mor­mon per­fect­ly and makes them the per­fect civ­i­liza­tion to be the Nephites.

Hap­logroup X DNA dis­tri­b­u­tion is found on the east coast of Amer­i­ca with the high­est con­cen­tra­tion found in the Great Lakes and Cana­da region. It’s not found in South and Cen­tral Amer­i­ca and very lit­tle on the west coast of Amer­i­ca. Gen­er­al world migra­tion the­o­ry is that pop­u­la­tions would fol­low the coast line we do not see this with hap­logroup X. Sci­en­tist have point out dat­ing of hap­logroup X entry has been uncer­tain. Stud­ies have shown pop­u­la­tion expan­sion of hap­logroup X as stat­ed by sci­en­tist hap­pened dur­ing bib­li­cal times. One would assume that if hap­logroup X arrived as late as 12000BC pop­u­la­tion expan­sion would have hap­pened much ear­li­er than what the cur­rent the evi­dence shows. Some sci­en­tist have the­o­rized that hap­logroup X crossed 3000 miles over ice from Europe to Amer­i­ca across the Atlantic Ocean dur­ing the last ice. This the­o­ry is called the Solutre­an the­o­ry and hap­logroup X dis­tri­b­u­tion and Clo­vis spear points are used as evi­dence. The the­o­ry that groups of peo­ple crossed over 3000 miles of frozen Atlantic Ocean ice is hard to swal­low for the vast major­i­ty of sci­en­tist and this the­o­ry is not accept­ed. Any dat­ing of hap­logroup X by car­bon dat­ing past 6000 BC I believe is incor­rect because of the evi­dence that will be pro­vid­ed and the envi­ron­men­tal, uncer­tain atmos­pher­ic con­di­tions of mil­len­ni­al dates, and vari­able inputs need­ed for car­bon dat­ing and bias­es of researchers.

The point of this is that the­o­ries of the pop­u­lat­ing of the Amer­i­can con­ti­nent is fraught with holes. I believe DNA, cul­tur­al, and lin­guis­tic evi­dence will show that the Amer­i­can con­ti­nent was pop­u­lat­ed through trans-ocean­ic voy­ages by ships ver­sus land migra­tions in artic tem­per­a­tures across bar­ren ice. A view of geo­graph­i­cal loca­tions of South Amer­i­can DNA found in Asia has many loca­tions in South Asia with fair­ly close prox­im­i­ty to the ocean sug­gest­ing ocean these voy­ages. The Book of Mor­mon states that there were three trans-ocean­ic migra­tions by ship, Lehi’s fam­i­ly, the Mulekites and the Jared­ites. Poly­ne­sian DNA the leg­end of Fu sand and the Book of Mor­mon is all evi­dence that the Pop­u­lat­ing of North Amer­i­can was done by ship and not on artic land mass­es.

The tim­ing of ini­tial entry into the Amer­i­c­as is uncer­tain. Through use of esti­mates of mtD­NA diver­si­ty and rates of mtD­NA evo­lu­tion, a broad range of dates (11,000–43,000 years BP) have been esti­mat­ed (Tor­roni et al. 1994; Bon­at­to and Salzano 1997a; Lorenz and Smith 1997; Stone and Stonek­ing 1998). Although researchers have rec­og­nized the need to incor­po­rate pop­u­la­tion his­to­ry in their esti­mates, the wide range of dates report­ed in the lit­er­a­ture for the peo­pling of the Amer­i­c­as sug­gests that accu­rate mod­els of Native Amer­i­can pop­u­la­tion his­to­ry, accu­rate mod­els of the evo­lu­tion of mtD­NA, and suf­fi­cient sam­pling of pop­u­la­tions in the Amer­i­c­as have not yet emerged.”

http://​www​.ncbi​.nlm​.nih​.gov/​p​m​c​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​s​/​P​M​C​3​7​9​1​19/

As will be shown in the essay North Amer­i­can Indi­ans have beliefs that match the Book of Mor­mon per­fect­ly. To include that Chero­kee and Iro­quois killed off a white race of Indi­an, cer­tain Indi­an tribes sailed to North Amer­i­ca and beliefs of writ­ten char­ac­ters and let­ters. They had a lost gospel tak­en away from them, beliefs of a flood and Christ-like appear­ance. They also have Hebrew like lan­guage and cul­ture and tem­ple prac­tices. Based on their own beliefs and tra­di­tions the Chero­kee and Iro­quois make up the pri­ma­ry tribes to be the Laman­ites. The Mic­mac Indi­ans based on the writ­ings of Father Chret­ian Le Cler­cq are most like­ly to have been direct descen­dants of the Nephites.

Below I have added some quotes about Indi­an beliefs, cul­ture and lan­guage. The quotes and evi­dence pro­vid­ed is a small sam­pling and just begins to scratch the sur­face out of the many books that have been writ­ten about the Amer­i­can Indi­ans. To make the state­ment that there is no DNA, arche­o­log­i­cal, cul­tur­al and lin­guis­tic evi­dence to sup­port the Book of Mor­mon is com­plete­ly false the oppo­site is true. The quotes below come from today’s anthro­pol­o­gist. And the 19th 18th 17th cen­tu­ry books are used by his­to­ri­ans to write the his­to­ry of the North Amer­i­can Indi­ans. Some peo­ple might find using these sources as trou­ble­some. But when it comes to explor­ing the beliefs cul­ture and tra­di­tions of the Amer­i­can Indi­ans the old­er the source the bet­ter due to the sys­tem­at­ic destruc­tion of the Native Amer­i­can way of life in the 18th, 19th and 20th cen­tu­ry. One will also notice that state­ments made will be sup­port­ed by mul­ti­ple sources some from dif­fer­ent coun­tries and time spans.

Haplogroup X Distribution

Hap­logroup X dis­tri­b­u­tion match­es the his­tor­i­cal record giv­en in the Book of Mor­mon and Bible. Accord­ing to the Heart­land Mod­el Lehi and his fam­i­ly land­ed some­where between the Flori­da Pan­han­dle and Mis­sis­sip­pi. Nephi and his fam­i­ly imme­di­ate­ly sep­a­rat­ed from Laman and went into the wilder­ness. The Seed of Nephi would most like­ly be the Cau­casian DNA mark­er of hap­logroup X and Laman’s seed would have mixed with the Asian eth­nic tribes of that area and era. In the Book of Mor­mon it states that the Nephites con­stant­ly had to move North because their tra­di­tion­al lands south were being over tak­en by the Laman­ites. The Nephites also had an exten­sive trade sys­tem that includ­ed the use of hors­es and char­i­ots. We can see from the map that hap­logroup X reached to and beyond the Rocky Moun­tains. That match­es the state­ments that Joseph Smith made about Zelph that he was known from the Rocky Moun­tains to the east­ern see (Lake Ontario). If the Hopewell Indi­ans are the Nephites we know that the exten­sive trade sys­tem of the Hopewell’s reached to the Rocky Moun­tains to Lake Ontario and beyond as shown in the hap­logroup X map. Hagoth sailed across the West Sea with over 5000 men women and chil­dren and he made this voy­age twice. The west sea is most like­ly Lake Michi­gan. Hagoth would have pop­u­lat­ed what is now Cana­da. Hagoth’s seed for the most part could have avoid­ed the Nephite geno­cide which hap­pened in the Great Lakes area and would account for the largest con­cen­tra­tion of hap­logroup X in Cana­da. I know that prophets and apos­tles made state­ments that Hagoth sailed to the Poly­ne­sian Islands. I believe this to be incor­rect. I believe they made these state­ments based on opin­ion and the knowl­edge and accept­ed the­o­ries of that day. Prophets and apos­tles opin­ions have been wrong before about incon­se­quen­tial and con­tro­ver­sial top­ics such as the idea that blacks would nev­er receive the Priest­hood and that men lived on the moon.

Haplogroup_X_(mtDNA)

As far as the Europe and Mid­dle East dis­tri­b­u­tion goes we know that Man­asseh and his seed were in Egypt, Per­sia, and then went north to what is believed by tra­di­tion­al accounts of the Lost Ten Tribes mov­ing north. Each geo­graph­i­cal loca­tion men­tioned in the Bible and Book of Mor­mon is account­ed for from the orig­i­na­tion point of hap­logroup X and its move north into Europe. One research paper has point­ed out that the Galilee Druze of Israel have the most diver­si­ty and the high­est con­cen­tra­tion of Hap­logroup X found on the Euro­pean and Eurasian con­ti­nent.

These Galilee Druze indi­vid­u­als rep­re­sent the refugium of an ances­tral group with high diver­si­ty and high fre­quen­cy of hap­logroup X, which was more preva­lent in the region in antiq­ui­ty, and from which the glob­al diver­si­ty of X mtD­NA hap­logroup emerged.

We found that 39 of 41 hap­logroup X Druze indi­vid­u­als were from the Galilee heights (Table S2), cor­re­spond­ing to 21.4% (39÷182) of the sam­ples from that region. Enrich­ment analy­sis revealed that both X1 and X2 were high­ly enriched in this region”

The high­est con­cen­tra­tions in the world of hap­logroup X is found in the Israeli Galilee Druze at 27%. The North Amer­i­can Indi­ans specif­i­cal­ly the Ojib­wa have the sec­ond high­est con­cen­tra­tion of hap­lo group x in the world. Hap­logroup X is found in Europe in sin­gle dig­its. This match to the Bible and Book of Mor­mon is quite remark­able. If hap­logroup X trav­eled with hap­logroup A, B, C and D across Asia to North Amer­i­ca, why do Ojib­wa have the sec­ond high­est con­cen­tra­tion? It’s remark­able that a tribe in North Amer­i­ca has almost the same con­cen­tra­tion of hap­logroup X in Israelis. This rep­re­sents to me a recent and dis­tinct voy­age to the new world prob­a­bly around 600BC. I believe it also shows that the Ojib­wa in par­tic­u­lar did not inter­mar­ry or pop­u­late with the oth­er hap­logroups already in the Amer­i­c­as. Hap­logroup X is dis­tinct from oth­er hap­logroups in every way.

The Book of Mor­mon points out two dis­tinct civ­i­liza­tions that had met­al­lur­gy and woven cloth. The North Amer­i­can con­ti­nent dur­ing the Book of Mor­mon time­line had two cul­tures and only two cul­tures that match this descrip­tion: the Hopewell and Ade­na. The time­line giv­en by the Book of Mor­mon match­es the Hopewell cul­ture and the end of the Ade­na cul­ture. DNA dis­tri­b­u­tion of the Euro­pean and North Amer­i­can con­ti­nent is also a match. There is absolute­ly no way that Joseph Smith could have known about the time­lines and DNA dis­tri­b­u­tion of these two cul­tures.

Asian Ethnic Tribes

The Asian eth­nic tribes came from the west on the oth­er hand the Great Lake Indi­ans said they sailed here from anoth­er coun­try to Amer­i­ca from the east. “On the con­trary, their tra­di­tions inform us that they came from the west that they crossed the Mis­sis­sip­pi, and that they grad­u­al­ly trav­elled towards the east, “When you ask them,” says Law­son, speak­ing of the Car­oli­na-Indi­ans, ” whence their Fore-fathers came, that first inhab­it­ed the coun­try, they will point to the West­ward and say. Where the Sun sleep, our Fore-fathers came thence As far as my inquiries have extend­ed, all the Indi­an nations on this side of the Mis­sis­sip­pi assert, that they trav­eled from the west, from the north­west, or from the south. Many of them speak of their trav­el across the Mis­sis­sip­pi. The Natchez informed Du Pratz, that before they came into the coun­try east of the Mis­sis­sip­pi, they dwelt near­ly in the south-west, “under the sun” The Musko­hge, or Creeks, assert that they crossed the Mis­sis­sip­pi about the time that the army of Soto ram­bled through Flori­da. || The Chikkasah have told me, that they for­mer­ly lived to the west of the Mis­sis­sip­pi and that they relin­quished that coun­try in obe­di­ence to a dream, in which they were advised to leave their west­ern estab­lish­ment and to go to the coun­try where the sun ris­es.”
(Bar­ton 1798 pg. XCII)

Fu Sang

How did the Asian eth­nic tribes arrive in North Amer­i­ca? A belief that they crossed the Bering ice bridge 30000 years ago goes against the idea that some believ­ers hold that human life began with Adam and Eve 4000 years ago and against DNA evi­dence. I find the leg­end of Fu Sang an accept­able alter­na­tive vs the Bering land bridge the­o­ry. The leg­end of Fu Sang is that the Chi­nese sailed to Amer­i­ca. The evi­dence used for this are Chi­nese style anchors found off the coast of Cal­i­for­nia, leg­ends describ­ing gigan­tic trees (red­woods found in Cal­i­for­nia) from a new land. Mar­co Polo is also used as evi­dence for Fu Sang. There is a 14th cen­tu­ry goat skin map that shows what looks like the coast of Alas­ka what is believed to be passed down from Mar­co Polo to his pos­ter­i­ty.

Series Nav­i­ga­tion: North Amer­i­can Book of Mor­mon Geog­ra­phy — David McK­ane« Tribe of Man­asseh — North Amer­i­can Nephite Mod­elTribe of Man­asseh — Tech­nol­o­gy and Ani­mals »

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