DNA mark­er x2a’j is prob­a­bly the great­est DNA evi­dence for the Book of Mor­mon thus far.

X2a’j is not found in North Amer­i­ca but its impor­tance to Native Amer­i­can DNA is vir­tu­al­ly unknown. It’s the 5‑ton ele­phant in the room that researcher’s geneti­cist do not want to talk about. Out­side of the Amer­i­can con­ti­nent it’s the most close­ly relat­ed genet­ic link to a found­ing Native Amer­i­can genet­ic DNA mark­er called hap­logroup X. X2a’j is found in Iran. One would expect that if cur­rent the­o­ries about world migra­tion and DNA dat­ing are cor­rect the clos­est genet­ic links to Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X would be in Siberia, East and cen­tral Asia. Hap­logroup X DNA relat­ed to Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X is not found in these coun­tries. Hap­logroup X found in the Altains is not relat­ed to Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X.

The dat­ing of hap­logroup X is trou­ble­some for the Book of Mor­mon but the geo­graph­i­cal dis­tri­b­u­tion of hap­logroup X is spot on. Galilee Druze of Israel have the most genet­ic diver­si­ty of hap­logroup X. It’s been pro­posed that this area in Israel is the place that hap­logroup x dis­persed from. For those who believe in the his­tor­i­cal nar­ra­tive of the Bible and Book of Mor­mon the idea that Native Amer­i­can DNA dis­persed from Israel match­es the scrip­tur­al nar­ra­tive of the Bible and Book of Mor­mon. But the real ques­tion becomes why would the clos­est hap­logroup X genet­ic link to Native of Amer­i­cans be in Iran?

Bor­row­ing from pre­vi­ous research the Bible and Book of Mor­mon explain as fol­lows. The tribe of Man­asseh which Lehi and Nephi are mem­bers of are invad­ed by the Assyr­i­ans and defeat­ed and half of the tribe of Man­asseh are deported.(2 Kings 17:6, 1Chronicles 5:26). In the final depor­ta­tions of Man­asseh, Sar­gon the II deports the north­ern tribes of Israel to the Assyr­i­an empire which includ­ed Media known today as the north­west part of Iran. The Medi­an tribes in 678BC made the first empire of Iran. With these depor­ta­tions it’s also believed the dis­per­sions of the lost ten tribes of Israel to the north begins.

2 Chron­i­cles 30:1–11 explains that the Tribe of Man­asseh was invit­ed back to Jerusalem to wor­ship back at the tem­ple. 2 Kings 17:34 states that they no longer wor­shipped the God of Israel, most like­ly influ­enced by the Assyr­i­an cul­ture and beliefs pro­vid­ed by the Assyr­i­ans. Lehi ances­tors very well could have been some of those invit­ed back to Jerusalem and recon­vert­ed back to their ances­tral Hebrew beliefs. Those who rebelled against Nephi such as Laman, Lemuel and the sons of Ish­mael prob­a­bly revert­ed back to pagan beliefs of Assyr­i­an ori­gin when they arrived in the promise land.

As to why this is the most con­cise DNA evi­dence for the Book of Mor­mon is twofold. There are cul­tur­al and DNA find­ings that match the Book of Mor­mon and Old Tes­ta­ment. The DNA and scrip­tur­al nar­ra­tive is noth­ing with­out the cul­tur­al evi­dence dis­played by Native Amer­i­can cul­ture. I believe not only did Lehi bring Hebrew like cul­ture but Laman and Lemuel or pos­si­bly the Mulekites brought over Assyr­i­an pagan beliefs. The Nez Pierce Indi­ans have the most con­crete exam­ples of Assyr­i­an cul­ture. The Mik Mak Indi­ans have the best exam­ples of Hebrew cul­ture.

Ancient Mesopotami­an Cuneiform tablets were found on Chief Joseph. Cuneiform dates back thou­sands of years to Mesopotamia, to what is now mod­ern day Iraq. Assyr­i­ans also used a form of cuneiform. When Chief Joseph was asked where he got the tablets he said he received them from his fore­fa­thers. The tablet was trans­lat­ed as a bill of sale for ani­mals.

Left: Inanna, Goddess of Love and Queen of Heaven. Right: Inanna in Dimlun

This is an ancient Assyr­i­an relief sculp­ture. The Assyr­i­an God Ash­er sits on his throne. In front of him is a four-point­ed star with a cir­cle in the cen­ter. Radi­at­ing out from between the four points of the star are rays of light. The rays of light radi­ate out in three rib­bons:


Assyr­i­an Flag

The Assyr­i­an flag is the flag cho­sen by the Assyr­i­an peo­ple to rep­re­sent the Assyr­i­an nation in the home­land and in the dias­po­ra.


Chief Joseph not only had Cuneiform tablets but his med­i­cine bag has what appears to have the Assyr­i­an Star of Ashur. The star in the mid­dle has four points and what would be the three rib­bons of light com­ing from the star.



We sur­veyed our Old World hap­logroup X mtD­NAs for the five diag­nos­tic X2a muta­tions (table 2) and found a match only for the tran­si­tion at np 12397 in a sin­gle X2* sequence from Iran. In a par­si­mo­ny tree, this Iran­ian mtD­NA would share a com­mon ances­tor with the Native Amer­i­can clade.”

(Ori­gin and Dif­fu­sion of mtD­NA hap­logroup X, http://​www​.ncbi​.nlm​.nih​.gov/​p​m​c​/​a​r​t​i​c​l​e​s​/​P​M​C​1​1​80497/)

NP 12397 is X2A’J. DNA proof explain­ing the mys­tery of Nez Pierce Indi­ans hav­ing Assyr­i­an cul­ture is iron clad evi­dence in my unpro­fes­sion­al opin­ion. That Assyr­i­an cul­ture to include oth­er old world cul­ture thrived among North Amer­i­can Native Amer­i­cans.

Peo­ple have tried to explain away Chief Joseph hav­ing cuneiform tablets with seem­ing­ly impos­si­ble expla­na­tions. But to try and explain the cul­tur­al, cuneiform tablets and sup­port­ing DNA evi­dence will take a supreme effort of men­tal gym­nas­tics.

Crit­ics will point out that Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X in North Amer­i­ca is prob­lem­at­ic it dates to between 11000–13000BC. Well before the Book of Mor­mon. This imme­di­ate­ly dis­qual­i­fies hap­logroup X as DNA evi­dence of the Book of Mor­mon unless of course dat­ing of Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X is incor­rect. If crit­ics are able to cred­i­bly explain away the Assyr­i­an links and DNA evi­dence found in Iran then the dat­ing of hap­logroup X2a has a leg to stand on oth­er­wise. Native Amer­i­can hap­logroup X can­not be dat­ed ear­li­er then Assyr­i­an cul­ture which start­ed around 3000BC. If you fol­low the scrip­tur­al nar­ra­tive than Ken­nwick man should date after 550BC. At this point the only expla­na­tion for Native Amer­i­can Iran DNA and Assyr­i­an cul­ture is scrip­ture.

Much like the men­tal gym­nas­tics of call­ing a horse a tapir and oth­er exam­ples Mesoamer­i­can apolo­get­ics were laughed to scorn for their hope in the most unlike­li­est cir­cum­stances. Research­es best bet at this point is to con­tin­ue to ignore the DNA evi­dence and hope like Book of Mor­mon Mesoamer­i­can apol­o­gist that DNA evi­dence in their favor will arise.

To see more cul­tur­al links to the old world see link.

Tribe of Man­asseh – Native Amer­i­can DNA

To see tech­nolo­gies that are the equiv­a­lent or the same as old world tech­nolo­gies see link.

Tribe of Man­asseh – Tech­nol­o­gy and Ani­mals

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Bridgett AustinDave MackWes TrexlerWes Trexlermolly_miller Recent comment authors
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Bridgett Austin
Bridgett Austin

I’d like to add to this dis­cus­sion. Maybe these genes are from the giants and that’s why they are most sim­i­lar to …I don’t know what I’m sup­posed to say here… white peo­ple. I know from my dreams of my past lives that there were giants that were white with red hair and curly beards. Large lamp-like blue eyes and I was a very tall man and only came up to around his waist. He lived on an island in around Ire­land. His habi­ta­tion was a large, cir­cu­lar wood­work and it was at the high­est point. It was some kind of fes­ti­val time around March and he seemed to be the pre­sid­ing dig­ni­tary. The island was teem­ing with the locals who were of medi­um height, blond hair and blue eyes. I was not from around there and seemed much more urban and sophis­ti­cat­ed. I Was very tall, thin and had… Read more »

Wes Trexler

David, I’d love to hear more about your beliefs about car­bon dat­ing. You state that the X2AJ DNA has been dat­ed through the Ken­nwick skele­ton to a range from 3750 BC to 7000 BC. I under­stand that is a large range, how­ev­er not even the youngest date in that range aligns with the Book of Mor­mon time­line. You state that “Radio car­bon dat­ing is based on know­ing how much car­bon diox­ide is in the atmos­phere at the time there dat­ing the spec­i­men to and oth­er vari­ables. I frankly do not trust their vari­ables.” That is an impor­tant vari­able, and there is sol­id evi­dence indi­cat­ing the lev­els of car­bon diox­ide (C12 and C14) in the atmos­phere back at least 8000 years. By mea­sur­ing the C12 and C14 in very old dead trees and count­ing the thou­sands of rings of those trees, along with the thou­sands of rings of recent­ly alive trees, sci­en­tists have… Read more »



The same hap­logroup X found in liv­ing Native Amer­i­cans was present in Native Amer­i­can pop­u­la­tions that lived 8,000 years ago. This fact demon­strates your claims are false.


Did chief Joseph live in North Amer­i­ca or Cen­tral Amer­i­ca ? One won­ders where the Book of Mor­mon peo­ple lived since we have Book of Mor­mon tours in Cen­tral Amer­i­ca


“Peo­ple have tried to explain away Chief Joseph hav­ing cuneiform tablets with seem­ing­ly impos­si­ble expla­na­tions.” Non­sense. The only source that Chief Joseph had them and the things he alleged­ly said about them came from one per­son who wrote with­out sources for Chief Joseph’s alleged words to back up her claims. Mary Gin­dling’s post does not make it so. https://web.archive.org/web/20100131104033/http://www.helium.com/items/1636848-hisdtory-mystery-chief-josephs-cuneiform-tablet The Smith­son­ian Mag­a­zine of Feb­ru­ary, 1979 gives very plau­si­ble expla­na­tions. David, just because the tablet is authen­tic does not prove that Chief Joseph ever even owned it or had it in his pos­ses­sion. Edgar James Banks brought per­haps thou­sands of those items into the Unit­ed States and sold them, long after the Bat­tle of Bear Paw. The first time the tablet showed up was at West Point in a box of items labeled as Chief Joseph’s belong­ings. It is most like­ly and the best plau­si­ble expla­na­tion, that the tablet had been… Read more »