DNA marker x2a’j is probably the greatest DNA evidence for the Book of Mormon thus far.
X2a’j is not found in North America but its importance to Native American DNA is virtually unknown. It’s the 5‑ton elephant in the room that researcher’s geneticist do not want to talk about. Outside of the American continent it’s the most closely related genetic link to a founding Native American genetic DNA marker called haplogroup X. X2a’j is found in Iran. One would expect that if current theories about world migration and DNA dating are correct the closest genetic links to Native American haplogroup X would be in Siberia, East and central Asia. Haplogroup X DNA related to Native American haplogroup X is not found in these countries. Haplogroup X found in the Altains is not related to Native American haplogroup X.
The dating of haplogroup X is troublesome for the Book of Mormon but the geographical distribution of haplogroup X is spot on. Galilee Druze of Israel have the most genetic diversity of haplogroup X. It’s been proposed that this area in Israel is the place that haplogroup x dispersed from. For those who believe in the historical narrative of the Bible and Book of Mormon the idea that Native American DNA dispersed from Israel matches the scriptural narrative of the Bible and Book of Mormon. But the real question becomes why would the closest haplogroup X genetic link to Native of Americans be in Iran?
Borrowing from previous research the Bible and Book of Mormon explain as follows. The tribe of Manasseh which Lehi and Nephi are members of are invaded by the Assyrians and defeated and half of the tribe of Manasseh are deported.(2 Kings 17:6, 1Chronicles 5:26). In the final deportations of Manasseh, Sargon the II deports the northern tribes of Israel to the Assyrian empire which included Media known today as the northwest part of Iran. The Median tribes in 678BC made the first empire of Iran. With these deportations it’s also believed the dispersions of the lost ten tribes of Israel to the north begins.
2 Chronicles 30:1–11 explains that the Tribe of Manasseh was invited back to Jerusalem to worship back at the temple. 2 Kings 17:34 states that they no longer worshipped the God of Israel, most likely influenced by the Assyrian culture and beliefs provided by the Assyrians. Lehi ancestors very well could have been some of those invited back to Jerusalem and reconverted back to their ancestral Hebrew beliefs. Those who rebelled against Nephi such as Laman, Lemuel and the sons of Ishmael probably reverted back to pagan beliefs of Assyrian origin when they arrived in the promise land.
As to why this is the most concise DNA evidence for the Book of Mormon is twofold. There are cultural and DNA findings that match the Book of Mormon and Old Testament. The DNA and scriptural narrative is nothing without the cultural evidence displayed by Native American culture. I believe not only did Lehi bring Hebrew like culture but Laman and Lemuel or possibly the Mulekites brought over Assyrian pagan beliefs. The Nez Pierce Indians have the most concrete examples of Assyrian culture. The Mik Mak Indians have the best examples of Hebrew culture.
Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform tablets were found on Chief Joseph. Cuneiform dates back thousands of years to Mesopotamia, to what is now modern day Iraq. Assyrians also used a form of cuneiform. When Chief Joseph was asked where he got the tablets he said he received them from his forefathers. The tablet was translated as a bill of sale for animals.
This is an ancient Assyrian relief sculpture. The Assyrian God Asher sits on his throne. In front of him is a four-pointed star with a circle in the center. Radiating out from between the four points of the star are rays of light. The rays of light radiate out in three ribbons:
The Assyrian flag is the flag chosen by the Assyrian people to represent the Assyrian nation in the homeland and in the diaspora.
Chief Joseph not only had Cuneiform tablets but his medicine bag has what appears to have the Assyrian Star of Ashur. The star in the middle has four points and what would be the three ribbons of light coming from the star.
“We surveyed our Old World haplogroup X mtDNAs for the five diagnostic X2a mutations (table 2) and found a match only for the transition at np 12397 in a single X2* sequence from Iran. In a parsimony tree, this Iranian mtDNA would share a common ancestor with the Native American clade.”
(Origin and Diffusion of mtDNA haplogroup X, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180497/)
NP 12397 is X2A’J. DNA proof explaining the mystery of Nez Pierce Indians having Assyrian culture is iron clad evidence in my unprofessional opinion. That Assyrian culture to include other old world culture thrived among North American Native Americans.
People have tried to explain away Chief Joseph having cuneiform tablets with seemingly impossible explanations. But to try and explain the cultural, cuneiform tablets and supporting DNA evidence will take a supreme effort of mental gymnastics.
Critics will point out that Native American haplogroup X in North America is problematic it dates to between 11000–13000BC. Well before the Book of Mormon. This immediately disqualifies haplogroup X as DNA evidence of the Book of Mormon unless of course dating of Native American haplogroup X is incorrect. If critics are able to credibly explain away the Assyrian links and DNA evidence found in Iran then the dating of haplogroup X2a has a leg to stand on otherwise. Native American haplogroup X cannot be dated earlier then Assyrian culture which started around 3000BC. If you follow the scriptural narrative than Kennwick man should date after 550BC. At this point the only explanation for Native American Iran DNA and Assyrian culture is scripture.
Much like the mental gymnastics of calling a horse a tapir and other examples Mesoamerican apologetics were laughed to scorn for their hope in the most unlikeliest circumstances. Researches best bet at this point is to continue to ignore the DNA evidence and hope like Book of Mormon Mesoamerican apologist that DNA evidence in their favor will arise.
To see more cultural links to the old world see link.
To see technologies that are the equivalent or the same as old world technologies see link.